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Liver Cancer

CLINICAL TRIALS

ARYA-1: A Study of ET140203 T Cells in Adult Subjects with AFP+ Liver Cancer

ARYA-2: A Study of ET140203 T Cells in Pediatric Subjects with AFP+ Liver Cancer

ARYA-3: A Study of ECT204 T Cells in Adult Subjects with GPC3+ Liver Cancer

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The American Liver Foundation receives contributions and funding from clinical trial and study sponsors but does not evaluate or endorse any clinical trials or studies, and is not affiliated with any of the sponsors.

Know the risks. Understand the symptoms.

Get screened and talk to your doctor today about treatment alternatives.


Cancer is the growth and spread of unhealthy cells in the body.

Primary liver cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the liver. Other names for primary liver cancer are hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma (abbreviated as HCC).

Secondary liver cancer is a type of cancer that starts somewhere else in the body and spreads to the liver. The medical term for a cancer that has spread is metastatic, so secondary liver cancer is also referred to as metastatic liver cancer.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of cancer among adults in the USA. Most people with hepatocellular carcinoma have many small clusters of cancer cells called nodules. Some people have only one tumor that gets larger over time. Learn more about rare forms of liver cancer.

Healthy versus Cirrhotic LiverLiver disease is a progression that follows stages of illness. Some people with liver disease progress to cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, which puts them at increased risk for liver cancer.

Liver cancer is more common among men than women.

The most current data indicates that liver cancer is among the top ten causes of death in the USA among all races, ethnicities, and genders. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017)  It claims the lives of approximately 34,000 Americans each year.

Liver cancer may have genetic or hereditary causes that are outside of our control. We may, however, be able to reduce our risk for developing liver cancer by being aware of the most common causes.

There are treatment options for people with liver cancer. Doctors suggest treatments based on type of cancer present, stage of cancer, and other information obtained through medical test results.

A risk factor is something that increases the possibility of developing a disease. Certain conditions or behaviors can increase a person’s chances of developing liver cancer. Having cirrhosis is a risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer). Cirrhosis is severe scarring of the liver due to a progression of damage to the liver, usually over many years. People often think that overuse of alcohol is the only way that cirrhosis can occur. In fact, drinking alcohol in excess is only one way in which a person can get cirrhosis.

Long-term (chronic) hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections are linked to liver cancer because they often lead to cirrhosis if they are undiagnosed and/or untreated. Hepatitis B is an exception to the norm in that it can lead to liver cancer without first causing cirrhosis in the progression of liver damage.

People with fatty liver may over time develop complications including cirrhosis, thereby putting them at risk for liver cancer. Certain conditions increase one’s chances of having fatty liver, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and high triglycerides.

People with certain hereditary and/or rare diseases may be prone to developing liver cancer. These include:

Environmental exposure to aflatoxins (poisonous cancer-causing agents produced by molds that grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains) may lead to liver cancer.

Finally, long-term use of anabolic steroids has been linked to the development of liver cancer in some people.

People with any risk factor, or those who have been diagnosed with cirrhosis, should speak with their doctors about cancer screening and surveillance so that should cancer develop, it may be diagnosed sooner rather than later.

Physical ScreeningsUnderstanding the risk factors for liver cancer is a big step in reducing your chances of getting liver cancer.

If you have a known liver disease, it is important to make and keep regular appointments with a medical provider who specializes in this field. Liver specialists are called gastroenterologists or hepatologists. You can still go to your primary care provider for your overall care and see the specialist for your liver care. If you are diagnosed with liver cancer, you will be referred to a liver cancer specialist. This type of specialist is called an oncologist.

Key steps you can take to keep your risk for liver cancer low include:

  • Preventing exposure to hepatitis B (through blood and body fluids) and speaking to your doctor about getting the hepatitis B vaccine
  • Preventing exposure to hepatitis C (through blood) from other people who may be infected (there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, but there is a treatment for people who are infected)
  • Getting tested for hepatitis B and C if you may have been exposed
  • Getting treatment for hepatitis B and/or C if you are infected
  • Discussing your liver cancer risk with your doctor if you have other risks such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, or if you drink heavily

Remember—people with cirrhosis should speak to their doctors about recommendations for regular surveillance and screenings for liver cancer. This can help detect cancer before symptoms start and the cancer becomes advanced.

People may not feel ill in the earliest stages of liver cancer, which is why it is very important to understand your risks and to talk to your doctor about liver cancer before you experience symptoms.

Once symptoms occur, they can include:

  • Fatigue
  • Bloating or feelings of fullness
  • Pain on the right side of the upper abdomen or back and shoulder
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness
  • Fever
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes)
MRI Scanner
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

Liver cancer is diagnosed through a physical examination and special medical tests. Diagnosis may include ultrasounds, CT scans, and MRI. Sometimes doctors may perform a liver biopsy, a procedure in which a small piece of liver tissue is removed and studied to confirm the diagnosis of liver cancer. Doctors may often do genetic testing of the cancer to help determine the best type of treatment for the patient.

Liver cancer treatment depends on:

  • The liver’s condition and the extent of cirrhosis
  • The size, location, and number of tumors
  • Whether the cancer has spread outside the liver or has remained within the liver
  • The overall health of the patient and other risk factors for liver cancer

transplant teamIf the cancer has not spread and the rest of the liver is healthy, treatment options may include:

Sometimes the cancer may be contained within the liver but is not responsive to the above treatments. If this is the case, other treatments may include:

If the cancer has spread outside of the liver, or if it is still within the liver but not responsive to any of the above treatments, doctors may recommend some of the following treatments (either separately or in combination):

  • Oral (by mouth) anti-cancer medications
  • Immunotherapy (a type of treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer)
  • Clinical trials (scientific studies to test new medications not yet available to the public

A successful liver transplant, also called a surgical resection, can cure liver cancer, but it is an option for only a small percentage of patients. Surgical resections are successful in only about one out of three cases. However, scientists are experimenting with several promising new treatments that could help prolong the lives of people with liver cancer.

Doctor Patient ConsultIf you have been diagnosed with liver cancer, you may feel shocked and scared. This is understandable. You will want to get as much information as you can from your doctor so that you will understand what is going on. Here are some questions that you can ask when you have your appointment.

  • Do I have primary or secondary liver cancer?
  • How many tumors do I have?
  • What size are these tumors?
  • Are there other tests I will need such as biopsy, imaging scans or PET scans?
  • Has the cancer remained in the liver or has it spread?
  • What treatment options do I have?
  • Will I have to stay in the hospital for my treatments?
  • What can be done to relieve my symptoms from the cancer?
  • How effective is the treatment for liver cancer?
  • What are the side effects of the treatment?
  • Is it possible for my tumors to return after I finish treatment?
  • Would I benefit from participation in a clinical trial? If so, where can I find more information about trials?
  • Is liver transplant a possibility for me?
  • Should I change my diet before and during treatment? If so, what should I eat? What should I avoid?
  • Are there any supplements or medications that I should take or avoid?
  • Can you recommend any support groups for me, my caregivers, and my family?
Amber R - Faces of Liver Disease

Amber R.

Liver Cancer
Amy

Amy’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer
Liver Life Walk

Art C.

Liver Cancer
Pitts

Barb’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer
Carter

Carter

Liver Cancer
Dan and Kevin

Dan M.

Living Donor for brother with PSC and Bile Duct Cancer
Dave B

Dave B.

Liver Transplant…
Mellilo

Donald’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer

ALF Patient Advocate Susan Ventura sat down with ALF National Medical Advisory Committee member Dr. Catherine Frenette, hepatologist at Scripps MD Anderson Center in San Diego to ask her our most frequently asked questions about cirrhosis and liver cancer. Make sure to watch this important, informative interview!

Barb’s Liver Cancer Story

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Barb's Liver Cancer Story" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference as told by Barb Pitts herself. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Bruce’s Liver Cancer Story

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Bruce's Liver Cancer Story" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference as told by Bruce Bower himself. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Don’s Liver Cancer Story

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Don's Liver Cancer Story" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference as told by Don Melillo himself. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Liver Cancer & Transplantation

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Liver Cancer & Transplantation" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Ali Zarrinpar. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Liver Cancer & the Underserved

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Liver Cancer & the Underserved" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Robert Wong. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Nutrition & the Liver

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Nutrition & the Liver" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Ed McDonald. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

COVID Vaccines & Liver Cancer

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "COVID Vaccines & Liver Cancer" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Bilaal Hameed. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Breakthroughs in Liver Cancer

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Breakthroughs Liver Cancer" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Richard Kalman. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Liver Cancer Clinical Trials

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Liver Cancer Clinical Trials" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Manisha Verma. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Treating Patients with Liver Cancer

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Treating Patients with Liver Cancer" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Ghassan Abou-Alfa. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Liver Cancer Screening & Surveillance

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Liver Cancer Screening & Surveillance" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Jennifer Guy. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

Liver Cancer 101

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Liver Cancer 101" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference presented by Dr. Tamar Taddei. Audience Liver Cancer Patients and Caregivers ...

2021 ALF Liver Cancer Conference

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference facilitated by Dr. Jennifer Guy and Dr. Tamar Taddei featuring presentations by doctors Ghassan Abou-Alfa, Sheila Eswaran, Ali Zarrinpar, Manisha Verma, Richard Kalman, Bilaal Hameed, Ed McDonald, Robert Wong and liver cancer patients Don Melillo, Bruce Bower and ...

Getting to Know Your Liver Cancer Multidisciplinary Medical Team

Program Description The American Liver Foundation presents "Getting to Know Your Liver Cancer Multidisciplinary Medical Team" as part of the 2021 Liver Cancer Conference facilitated by Dr. Sheila Eswaran featuring presentations by Nurse Alison O'Neill, Dr. Beau Toskich, Dr. Ali Zarrinpar, Dr. Ted Hong and Dr. Ghassan Abou-Alfa. Audience Liver ...

The Role of the Advanced Practice Provider in Diagnosing and Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Program Description This professional education program on The Role of the Advanced Practice Provider in Diagnosing and Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma is presented by the American Liver Foundation and features expert speakers David Choi, Pharm D, Elena Ignatiev, DNP, APRN, AGPCNP-BC, and Hazel Domingo, PA. Audience Medical Professionals ...

Amy’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer ...

Donald’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer ...

Menchie’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer ...

Barb’s Story

Learn More about Liver Cancer Liver Cancer ...

Lisa’s Story

Bile Duct Cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) Learn More about Bile Duct Cancer The word cholangiocarcinoma was not part of our vocabulary till 2010, along with words like tumor markers, bilirubin, liver panels, bile ducts and so many more words we didn’t want to know. I use the word “we” because this is ...

Pediatric Liver Disease and COVID-19

January 27, 2021 we hosted a panel of experts who answered questions about how COVID-19 is impacting children with liver disease and what you need to know. Participants had the opportunity to has panelists questions during and immediately following the program. We are grateful to Alexion Pharmaceuticals for their support ...

Liver Cancer Surveillance During the Coronavirus Pandemic

ALF Patient Advocate Susan Ventura sat down with ALF National Medical Advisory Committee member Dr. Catherine Frenette, hepatologist at Scripps MD Anderson Center in San Diego to ask her our most frequently asked questions about cirrhosis and liver cancer. Make sure to watch this important, informative interview! ...

Immune Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Webinar

Recorded on November 5th 2020, this American Liver Foundation webinar was presented by Dr. Ramya Thota, MBBS of Intermountain Healthcare in Murray, Utah. This webinar is designed to help patients diagnosed with liver cancer understand the benefits of immune therapy. This webinar was made possible by the generous support of ...

Liver Wellness and Cancer Webinar

Date of Program June 3, 2020 Program Description Dr. Anil Seetharam, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine and Medical Director of Liver Transplantation at University of Arizona College of Medicine in Phoenix presents an overview of liver health and wellness, liver cancer, hepatitis C, liver cancer and the COVID-19 coronavirus. This ...

Screening and Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Date of Program February 13, 2020 Program Description Dr. Kamran Qureshi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Saint Louis University School of Medicine, and a Member of the American Liver Foundation, Mid-America Division, Medical Advisory Committee. In this presentation he ...

Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Before an experimental treatment can be tested on human subjects in a clinical trial, it must have shown benefit in laboratory testing or animal research studies. The most promising treatments are then moved into clinical trials, with the goal of identifying new ways to safely and effectively prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease.

Speak with your doctor about the ongoing progress and results of these trials to get the most up-to-date information on new treatments. Participating in a clinical trial is a great way to contribute to curing, preventing and treating liver disease and its complications.

Start your search here to find clinical trials that need people like you.


Support for this page and the 2nd Annual “The Educated Patient: A Liver Cancer Conference”
made possible by a grant from Exelixis

Exelixis


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